Chile país: una reflexión (por Patricio Chaparro)

Patricio Chaparro

Considero que, por regla general, en nuestro Chile, lo que motiva centralmente a las personas, a las empresas, a las agrupaciones de trabajadores, a los políticos y partidos, a los grupos ciudadanos, etcétera, son intereses de carácter limitado.

Limitados en cuanto están orientados desde solamente los propios intereses económicos, ideologías y demandas, sin consideración a las de otros y del país.

Claro que reconozco que eso ha sido así, es así y será así. Nada demasiado nuevo bajo el sol en esto, sea en Chile o en otros países.

La gratuidad, la generosidad, la solidaridad, la consideración por los otros, la apertura a las ideas, intereses y demandas que no sean las propias, son excepcionales en la sociedad.

No tienen mucho espacio ni grandes expresiones que sean permanentes y de mayor alcance.

El problema, a mi juicio, reside en que el sólo interés propio que hoy motiva a la mayoría puede llevar a marginar o excluir segmentos sustantivos de la población y debilitar aún más a un ya débil régimen político democrático.

La marginación a que aludo no siempre ocurre – aunque entre nosotros tiende a suceder – porque si bien las economías de mercado privilegian la competencia y lo que algunos consideran la ganancia legítima y otros el detestable lucro, tienen como uno de sus objetivos centrales incorporar a más sectores de la población, no marginarlos.

No por motivos altruistas, sino porque les conviene que así sea, las economías de mercado están interesadas en que ingrese más gente en sus redes, que se incluyan más personas.

La globalización económica actual tiene precisamente como su motor principal la ampliación del mercado y la expansión del número de potenciales consumidores, no su reducción – las grandes empresas informáticas globales son un caso preclaro al respecto.

Algo de aquello ha ocurrido y está ocurriendo en Chile.

Así, es probable que los resultados finales del reciente censo nacional nos mostrarán que muchos chilenos, incluso entre los considerados como excluidos o marginados, se han incorporado al consumo de bienes más sofisticados, como refrigeradores, computadores, celulares, televisores plasma o LCD y también a servicios de educación media, técnica y superior, salud, vivienda y otros.

Por cierto, todo lo anterior no significa desconocer lo que es un hecho: la desigual distribución del ingreso y la concentración de la riqueza en una minoría de la población.

Pero, junto a la existencia persistente de un sector de la población en situación precaria, de pobreza o incluso indigencia, pueden detectarse sectores más acomodados -en el sentido de tener medios económicos suficientes- que hace una o dos décadas atrás.

Pienso que en el caso de Chile más que la marginación lo que destaca es la división que existe, se ha profundizado, y que es no sólo socio-económica sino que de carácter más profundo, socio-cultural.

Y opino que tal división proviene de las diferencias en la educación recibida y la cultura -actitudes, conductas- de las personas.

Tales diferencias se expresan de muchas maneras y dividen a los chilenos de un sector minoritario (alto y medio-alto) de otros mayoritarios (medio, medio-bajo y bajo), por orígenes, apellidos, contactos familiares, sociales, políticos, vocabulario disponible, lenguaje utilizado, estilos de vida, lugar en que se vive, conocimientos, y un extenso etcétera.

Esa división permite o más bien obliga a plantear una pregunta corta y punzante: ¿es Chile un país?

Y sugiero, desde un punto de vista politológico, que la respuesta es no.

Más allá de una cada vez más huidiza y difusa unidad esencial en la diversidad, no existe un país/nación llamado Chile, sino varios “Chiles” y la razón de ello se puede encontrar en las evidentes desigualdades económico-sociales y en las variables socio-culturales antes aludidas.

Por otra parte, considero difícil actualmente hacer de Chile un país.

Porque en lo hecho, y en lo que queda por hacer al respecto, el Estado ha jugado un rol si bien no único, muy crucial, determinante.

Al respecto, percibo que lo que hoy prevalece son conflictos divisivos intensos entre los políticos, el gobierno, la(s) oposición(es), los partidos políticos, las coaliciones de partidos, las instituciones, que dificultan sino impiden enfrentar los problemas y definir una agenda con sentido de país, para hoy y el futuro.

Y ello ocurre precisamente entre quienes pueden y deben continuar la tarea inconclusa de organizar, representar, articular, agregar, definir y adoptar políticas públicas específicas, consensuadas, que hagan eficaz al Estado como principal constructor de éste, nuestro país, llamado Chile.

Fuente: Radio Cooperativa – Blogs Cooperativa – Opinión

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Patricio Chaparro

Patricio Chaparro

Abogado, graduado en la Universidad Católica de Valparaíso y doctor (Ph.D.) en Ciencia Política, grado académico obtenido en la University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Estados Unidos. Este último título no le ha servido de mucho en un país en que todos sabemos de política, y de football, al nivel de doctores.

Ha escrito mucho, en castellano y en inglés. El mismo dice, medio en broma medio en serio, que ha escrito más que lo que ha leído. Pero en realidad sigue leyendo no uno sino varios libros a la vez, en la medida que el tiempo se lo permite, o incluso si no se lo permite.

En el área del derecho fue abogado de la Fiscalía del Banco del Estado de Chile y abogado jefe de Codelco. Actualmente ejerce libremente -por fin- en el campo de la abogacía.

Fue profesor universitario, en Chile y el extranjero (Estados Unidos y Puerto Rico). Tuvo que dejar de serlo. Se opuso al golpe militar y a la intervención de la P. Universidad Católica de Chile. Ustedes lectores –si es que alguno, digo- adivinen quién ganó esa batalla.

Curiosamente, es deportista, de toda la vida. El tenis es su deporte favorito, pero también el trote, la bicicleta estática, el spinning y, más recientemente, el maravilloso andinismo (que tiene que ser moderado, a estas alturas de su vida).

Guitarrista (bueno, relativamente) y cantor (malo, definitivamente). Sus preferencias: The Beatles y otros grandes músicos de los ’60 y los ’70 y la música latinoamericana, principalmente chilena y argentina.

Usuario (lerdo) pero infinitamente maravillado de los medios informáticos. La inmensidad de su aprecio y admiración por tales medios solamente se compara con su ignorancia técnica de los mismos.

Sigue interesado no solo en el derecho y la ciencia política sino también en la doctrina social de la Iglesia que quizás –y solamente quizás- algunos de los lectores conozcan y aprecien.

Casi no ve TV. Le parece, en general y en particular, una agresión a la inteligencia e incomprensible que una herramienta tan potente sea utilizada para intentar estupidizarnos.

Casado, una mujer y dos hijos también casados, todas personas simplemente maravillosas. Convencido, definitivamente, que la felicidad viene –y muchas veces termina- por casa.

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La DesConferencia

La Desconferencia: EdCamp Santiago
(Spanish Edition) [Kindle Edition]

Soy un maestro. Soy el más afortunado de todos quienes trabajan. A un médico se le permite traer una vida en un momento mágico. A mí se me permite que esa vida renazca día a a día con nuevas preguntas, ideas y amistades.

EdCamp Santiago es la desconferencia. Entrada gratuita, desarrollo profesional, por profesores, para profesores. Compartir en vez de competir, aprendizaje entre pares. Participantes comparten y intercambian sus mejores prácticas pedagógicas: “Best Practices”.

Product Details
File Size: 676 KB
Print Length: 107 pages
Simultaneous Device Usage: Unlimited
Sold by: Amazon Digital Services
Language: Spanish
ASIN: B008302H4G

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La Desconferencia: EdCamp Santiago (Volume 2) [Paperback]

Product Details
Paperback: 138 pages
Publisher: CreateSpace (May 14, 2012)
Language: English
ISBN-10: 1477467734
ISBN-13: 978-1477467732

Product Dimensions: 9 x 6 x 0.3 inches
Shipping Weight: 9.3 ounces

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Amazon Author Page: Thomas Jerome Baker

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My Dear Friend: Welcome to Chile (Essays from a Teacher in Chile) [Kindle Edition]

Book Description
Publication Date: February 19, 2012
My Dear Friend, Welcome to Chile.

This book shares the personal sentiment of its author, an expat, after having lived the past ten years in Chile. He says:

“I live in Chile, the most beautiful country in the world.”

He continues: “As I say these words, I want you to know that I come from the United States of America, a country that stretches from sea to shining sea, from the Atlantic to the Pacific. The USA is indeed a magnificent country, but it isn’t Chile…”

http://amzn.to/PNd5Wx

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EdCamp Santiago: The First Seven Days [Kindle Edition]

Book Description
Publication Date: March 4, 2012
Dedicated to all the educators, world-wide, who have participated in an EdCamp. Go forth, spread the word to the far corners of the Earth, something is happening. There’s something going on, a R(E)volution in teacher professional development. It’s called EdCamp….

A conference, that’s not a conference. An “unconference” is a better term. A new paradigm in teacher professional development, a new, creative, innovative way of staying up to date on what matters most to teachers. As I said, it’s a paradigm shift in teacher professional development. Let me repeat: Paradigm Shift.

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Being A Teacher in Chile [Kindle Edition]

Book Description
Publication Date: May 3, 2012
“How do you become a good teacher?” Those of you who know me from reading my writing already know my answer. The short answer, the simple answer, the easy to understand answer. It has two parts.
First, love what you do. Love being a teacher so much that if you had the power to be anything on Earth, pilot, astronaut, doctor, dentist, taxi-driver, singer, dancer, artist, musician, anything at all, you would still choose to be a teacher. Love being a teacher, that’s number one.

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Soy Un Maestro: I Am A Teacher [Paperback]

I am a teacher, and I teach in Chile. This year a new Teacher Career Law, defining the teaching profession in terms of increased prestige, attracting more applicants from higher performing students, an obligatory enabling exam, higher salaries, fewer hours teaching in the classroom, and higher responsibilities wil be passed, hopefully. This book totally supports the idea that a good law is needed, and now is the time to pass one, even if that law is not yet perfect. We Teachers have such a long way to go, and this is clearly a tremendous step in the right direction. To celebrate, all of the funds received for the sale of this book will go to support the EdCamp Santiago free conference for teachers in Chile. Thank you, in advance, for buying this book. May God Bless You…

Soy el más afortunado de todos quienes trabajan. A un médico se le permite traer una vida en un momento mágico. A mí se me permite que esa vida renazca día a a día con nuevas preguntas, ideas y amistades. Un arquitecto sabe que si construye con cuidado, su estructura puede permanecer por siglos. Un maestro sabe que si construye con amor y verdad, lo que construya durará para siempre.

Book Details
Paperback: 170 pages
Publisher: CreateSpace (July 3, 2012)
Language: English/Spanish
ISBN-10: 1478176520
ISBN-13: 978-1478176527

Soy Un Maestro: I Am A Teacher [Kindle Edition]

Soy Un Maestro: I Am A Teacher [Kindle Edition]

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La Desconferencia: EdCamp Santiago (Spanish Edition) [Kindle Edition]

Book Description
Publication Date: May 12, 2012
Soy un maestro. Soy el más afortunado de todos quienes trabajan. A un médico se le permite traer una vida en un momento mágico. A mí se me permite que esa vida renazca día a a día con nuevas preguntas, ideas y amistades.

EdCamp Santiago es la desconferencia. Entrada gratuita, desarrollo profesional, por profesores, para profesores. Compartir en vez de competir, aprendizaje entre pares. Participantes comparten y intercambian sus mejores prácticas pedagógicas: “Best Practices”.

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The Chilean National English Test [Kindle Edition]

Book Description

Publication Date: March 25, 2012

SIMCE Ingles 2010: The development of the national English test in Chile coincides with my story, which is woven autobiographically into the larger story, a test which apparently resulted in only 11% of students able to achieve a passing score.

This book will make you laugh, it will make you cry, it will reveal secrets to you that you thought you already knew about tests, test-making, and test-reporting.

More importantly, if you are a teacher, you leave the reading of this book with a renewed sense of confidence in who you are, and what you do…

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Celtic Warrior Queen Boudicca

Statue of Queen Boudicca on the Thames River in London

What is deemed as “history” is often determined by those who survived to write it. In other words, history is written by the victors. The Roman historian, Tacitus, left us an account of the Roman victory over Queen Boudicca in the year A.D. 60-61.

Prasutagus, the wealthy King of the Iceni tribe, had died. Upon his death, his wife, Queen Boudicca, became the new ruler of the Iceni tribe. She headed a rebellion against the occupying Romans in Britain in A.D. 60 in which more than seventy thousand Romans were killed. The rebellion was eventually crushed and Boudicca committed suicide. So, this is a neat, sweet his-story with a happy ending, if you were on the Roman side, that is.

Yet undeniably, every community has a memory of itself. Not a history, nor an archive, nor an authoritative record, but a living memory, an awareness of a collective identity woven of a thousand stories.

Now, with the help of the Roman historian Tacitus, I shall tell you Queen Boudicca’s story, her-story……

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Boudicca: Her Story
[Kindle Edition]

What is deemed as “his-story” is often determined by those who survived to write it. In other words, history is written by the victors. The Roman historian, Tacitus, left us an account of the Roman victory over Queen Boudicca in the year A.D. 60-61.

Yet undeniably, every community has a memory of itself. Not a history, nor an archive, nor an authoritative record, but a living memory, an awareness of a collective identity woven of a thousand stories.

Now, with the help of the Roman historian Tacitus, I shall tell you Queen Boudicca’s story, her-story……

Boudicca: Her Story [Kindle Edition]

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Pecha Kucha & ELT

I saw my first Pecha Kucha over three years ago. It was when I was working at Universidad Andrés Bello at Campus Casona in Santiago with the students in the English Pedagogy program. I admit I’ve been fascinated by “Pecha Kucha” ever since that first time. I remember being very impressed by the performance I watched. There were a number of reasons for this. For now, let me share with you why I find Pecha Kucha to be so impressive and fascinating as a presentation technique.
Firstly, when we speak of our first time doing something enjoyable, it’s always a good feeling. We like what we like, we know what we like, and because of that, we return often, to what we like.

As you can tell by now, I like Pecha Kucha.

Secondly, its principles are easy to understand and apply. It’s fast, it’s efficient, it’s effective, it’s collaborative, it’s visual, it’s easy to prepare, it’s fun. However, it does require practice, lots of it, to do this really well. Practice, oh what a sweet word in the ears of any EFL teacher. Students practicing what they are going to say, again and again, going over their own words, to speak about images they themselves have selected. Volumes of practice, huge quantities of practice, helping the students to achieve the eventual automaticity that is the hallmark of mastery.

Having said that, of all the principles of the Pecha Kucha, the most important principle is this: images are powerful.

Images convey meaning and emotions. In fact, the whole range of the human experience can be conveyed by images. For example, think of the images left on the walls of caves by cave men. No one needs a cave man to verbalize what you are seeing. You feel it – through your eyes – to your brain – to your emotions. It’s visual storytelling. That’s what the Pecha Kucha is, visual literacy in its purest form…

Pecha Kucha & ELT
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The International Baccalaureate [Kindle Edition]

The International Baccalaureate [Paperback]

The global search for high-quality education, embedded in high-performing education systems, has taken on mythical proportions, almost resembling the alchemists’ quest to turn common metals into gold.

It is my hope that the present day search for global education, equitable and providing equality of opportunity for all, shall not cease until the “gold” we seek, has been found.

I therefore dedicate this book to all the educators, researchers, parents and students the world over, who strive to achieve this elusive goal,high-quality education for all the citizens of the world.

In this endeavour, it is my belief that the International Baccalaureate merits a closer look, based on their more than 40 year history of delivering consistently excellent results.

I add that all of the reflections and views in this book are mine alone, unless otherwise noted, and can not be attributed to my employer or any other organization I am affiliated with, past or present. For any errors or oversights, I bear the complete responsibility.

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Amazon Author Page:

Thomas Jerome Baker

Thomas Baker is the Past-President of TESOL Chile (2010-2011). He is the Head of the English Department at Colegio Internacional SEK in Santiago, Chile.

He is the Co-Founder and Co-Organiser of EdCamp Santiago, free, participant-driven, democratic, conversation based professional development for teachers, by teachers. EdCamp Santiago 2012 was held at Universidad Mayor in Santiago.

Edcamp Santiago 2013 is currently looking for volunteers to help organize the annual event. If you are interested, contact Edcamp Santiago! Your help will make all the difference!

Email: edcampstgo@gmail.com
Facebook: Edcamp Santiago
!Like our page on Facebook please!
Read our Blog!
Edcamp Santiago on LinkedIn
Edcamp Santiago on Slideshare
Twitter: @EdcampSantiago

Es una red que reúne a Profesionales de la Educación preocupados por desarrollar y fortalecer las capacidades de sus comunidades educativas, a través de la creatividad, la innovación y el emprendimiento.

Thomas was recently selected for membership in the Comunidad de Innovación Escolar of the Foundation Telefónica and Foundation Educación 2020. It is a network that brings together education professionals concerned with developing and strengthening the capacities of their educational communities through creativity, innovation and entrepreneurship.

Thomas is also a past member (2011-2012) of the Advisory Board for the International Higher Education Teaching and Learning Association (HETL), where he also serves as a reviewer and as the HETL Ambassador for Chile.

Thomas enjoys writing about a wide variety of topics. Thus far, he has written the following genres: romance, historical fiction, autobiographical, sports history/biography, and English Language Teaching. He has published a total of forty four (44) books overall.

The source and inspiration for his writing comes from his family, his wife Gabriela, and his son, Thomas Jerome Baker, Jr.

http://www.amazon.com/Thomas-Jerome-Baker/e/B007G9HJFM

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About profesorbaker

Thomas Baker is the Past-President of TESOL Chile (2010-2011). He is the Coordinator of the English Department at Colegio Internacional SEK in Santiago, Chile. He is the Co-Founder and Co-Organiser of EdCamp Santiago 2012 & Edcamp Chile 2013, free, participant-driven, democratic, conversation based professional development for teachers, by teachers. EdCamp Santiago 2012 was held at Universidad Mayor in Santiago. Edcamp Chile 2013 was held at Universidad UCINF. Thomas is also a member of the Advisory Board for the International Higher Education Teaching and Learning Association (HETL), where he also serves as a reviewer and as the HETL Ambassador for Chile. Thomas enjoys writing about a wide variety of topics. Thus far, he has written the following genres: romance, historical fiction, autobiographical, sports history/biography, and English Language Teaching. He has published a total of sixty one (61) books, all available on Amazon http://amzn.to/Qxmoec . The source and inspiration for his writing comes from his family, his wife Gabriela, and his son, Thomas Jerome Baker, Jr.
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